The Associated Press started doling out All-State football awards way back in 1939. Yeah, that surprised me a little bit, too. And no, I wasn’t on the Lancaster County gridiron beat back in those days. Hardy-har-har.
For years and years and years, it was a single list. No classes. No big-school/small-school categories. No bells and/or whistles. Just the top offensive players and the top defensive players at each position across the state.
Somewhere in there along the way they added a second team. And eventually a third team. And then the AP started adding categories like specialists and athletes.
Things changed in 1988, when the AP split its lists into a big-school team and a small-school team. In 2003, the AP tweaked it again, splitting it up by classifications. First teams. Second teams. More specialists. More athletes. Etc., etc.
The AP stopped picking All-State football teams after the 2009 season. Boom, done. Since then, reporters from across the state nominate and then vote for the All-State teams, and they’re called the Pennsylvania Football Writers All-State Awards, broken up by class. First teams. Seconds teams. Specialists, athletes, the whole shebang.
I’m proud to be a nominator/voter for the Pennsylvania Football Writers All-State teams; pretty sure I’ve been nominating the L-L League players — and casting statewide ballots — since 2010. It’s always a highlight of my December duties.
The Lancaster-Lebanon League was hatched in 1972, and after leafing through the (very long) history of the Associated Press and PA Football Writers All-State teams, I can tell you — after a dive into the very deep end — that the L-L League has been well-repped over the years.
In all, 222 different L-L League players have earned All-State status between the AP and PA Football Writers over the years. That’s a bunch. Some of those players were repeat winners, and a pair of L-L League grads were three-time honorees. Keep reading to find out their identities.
Here’s a trip down memory lane for you, with some fun nuggets and blasts from the past along the way …
1978: Wilson, which joined the L-L League in 1975, had a pair of AP picks here, including the league’s maiden first-team All-State selection: DB Randy Simcox pulled off that feat. The Bulldogs also had a second-team pick in LB Mike Mohler. There would be many, many more selections from Wilson over the years. ... FYI: There were other Lancaster/Lebanon players chosen before 1972. For the purpose of this post, we're going with L-L League players picked starting in that 1972 season and moving forward; 1978 was the first time any L-L League players appeared on an AP list.
1980: Lebanon County checked in with its first L-L League AP All-State pick; Cedar Crest DB Bob Yorty earned a third-team nod.
1981: Another Wilson player and another Lebanon County player picked up AP awards: Wilson D-lineman Leroy Schannauer was a first-team selection, and Lebanon D-lineman Andy Lebo picked up a second-team honor.
1983: Finally, an L-L League offensive performer earned an AP award, and that went to Conestoga Valley O-lineman Jeff Brubaker, a third-team selection. Brubaker went on to play in the Big 33 game, and for Joe Paterno at Penn State. His son, Cocalico junior OG Ryan Brubaker, is up to 10 college scholarship offers, by the way. He’s been a chip off the old block.
1985: It took 14 years for the first L-L League skill player to make the AP list, and it was another former Conestoga Valley standout: WR Eric Esbenshade, a pass-catcher du jour for the Buckskins, checked in with a third-team nod. He would be the first of many CV wideouts to grace these lists over the years. And then, there was another dry spell for L-L League players …
1989: It was a jackpot season for the L-L League here, with six selections in the big-school category and another in the small-school division. The list included the league’s initial first-team offensive pick, and he’s a familiar face: Wilson QB Kerry Collins — future Penn State and NFL standout — led the way in the big-school category. And yes, I was at that infamous Saturday morning game at McCaskey, as a fan, when Collins winged that bombs-away game-winning TD pass in the waning seconds. Collins was joined by second-team offensive picks TE Todd Bradburn from Wilson and O-line standout Neil Fittery from Manheim Central. Wilson D-lineman Rob Burkhart earned a second-team nod, while third-team honors went to Manheim Central RB Darelle Neville and Elizabethtown DB Steve DeGroat. In the small-school division, Donegal OL Barry Hawkins — he was a trench force — picked up a first-team nod, giving the L-L League a pair of first-teamers in 1989.
1990: Wilson picked up another AP honor here, as LB Jake Slemmer was honored in the big-school category. He was a first-team selection. Not sure why Elizabethtown was characterized as a "small" school in 1990, but OL Keith Morris picked up a third-team honor for the Bears that year.
1991: Another big fall for the L-L League crew in the big-school category, including a Reading player; the Red Knights were in the league from 1987 until 2009. Reading WR Tony Hardy was a first-team pick, along with Conestoga Valley D-lineman Doug Myer, who helped the Buckskins advance to the PIAA Class 3A state finale that season. Myer, a crackerjack blitz-artist off the edge, was joined by CV teammates OL Mike Horn and shifty RB Brady Myers on the second team, and gunslinger QB Tyler Demmy, listed as a specialist, on the third team. The Bucks, who put up all kinds of crooked numbers that fall, fell to Erie Strong Vincent in the 3A finale that season, as CV was the first L-L League outfit to reach a state title game.
1992: Four picks in the big-school category here, including a repeat performance by CV’s Myer, who was listed as a first-team specialist. E-town LB Jon Swift garnered a second-team spot, and CV QB Mike Cook and Manheim Central O-line standout Mike Ruhl were third-teamers. Cook went on to play for William & Mary and he was in camp with the Cleveland Browns. There was also one small-school selection in 1992, and that went to Cocalico LB Dan Rathman, who was a first-team pick.
1993: Another big season for the L-L League contingent with nine overall AP nods. CV WR Corey Jones — a future Penn State wideout — was a first-team pick in the big-school category. He was joined on the second team by Buckskins’ teammate and fellow WR Darryl Daniel — a future Syracuse and NFL Europe wideout and current personal trainer and coach in Lancaster County — and Manheim Central K John Phillips, who was the first L-L League kicker to make a list. Phillips is currently the Barons’ kicking coach, and he was the first of several Barons’ specialists to earn an All-State nod. The Barons also produced another first-teamer in Jason Thompson, a QB by trade, who was listed as a specialist. Manheim Central DB Bob Smoker — older brother of Jeff — was a second-team pick, and Wilson DB Gooch Adams and Cook, CV’s QB, were third-team choices, along with Hempfield D-line stud Edwin Heisey — who came back to be a longtime assistant coach for the Knights. In the small-school category, Lebanon Catholic’s Ethan Weidle — a future Pitt performer — was a second-team pick. RIP Lebanon Catholic, which saw its football program fold after the 2000 season, and the school’s doors closed last spring.
1994: Six big-school picks here, including a repeat first-team nod for CV’s Jones at WR, plus Manheim Central LB Dan Kreider — a future Super Bowl winner as a fullback for the Pittsburgh Steelers — on the second team, along with Barons' teammate Chad Vinelli at O-line, plus third-teamers Tony Brown, an OL from Reading, Wilson LB John Piscitelli and Solanco DB Robert Harris. Also in 1994, Cocalico RB Randy Hall scarfed up a third-team pick on the small school list. Kreider has returned to the area as an assistant coach in Penn Manor's program.
1995: Seven AP selections here, including a couple of ultra familiar names. In the big-school category, Manheim Central WR Eric Zeigler picked up a first-team slot and Barons’ D-lineman Bo Moore was a second-team choice. Third-team nods went to Garden Spot LB Jeremy Brubaker and Cedar Crest’s Joe Gettle, who was listed as a specialist. And you might have heard of this big-school third-teamer: Manheim Central QB Matt Nagy — Delaware and Arena League signal-caller, and current head coach of the Chicago Bears. Two L-L League players were named to the small-school list: Cocalico battering-ram RB Tab Musser to the second team, and Lebanon Catholic breakaway RB Tommy Long, who was named third-team kick-returner. Musser and Long — Annville-Cleona’s athletic director and current L-L League football chairperson — waged a lot of wars back in the day, and they are two of the leading rushers in league history.
1996: The L-L League put six players on the big-school list, including a repeat nod by Musser, as Cocalico bumped up in class that year. He was a second-teamer at RB. Wilson TE John Gilmore was a first-team selection, and he was joined by Manheim Central DB Joe Daugherty and Governor Mifflin D-lineman Mike Dysput on the second team, and Cocalico OL Eric Fritz and Manheim Central DL Brett Kolk on the third team. Governor Mifflin was in the L-L League from 1975 until 2003. And yes, I can still see Musser barreling over would-be tacklers, and Kolk absolutely sticking unsuspecting ball-carriers. Those were the days.
1997: A slow year here, with just one L-L League nod: Lebanon TE Todd Wike — a future Maryland performer — was a big-school second-team pick.
1998: Just three L-L League players were honored with AP big-school selections here: Reading’s Elly Salamo was a second-team specialist and Manheim Township’s Rob Blomeier — a future Nebraska Cornhusker — was a second-team DB. And this name should certainly ring a few bells: Manheim Central QB Jeff Smoker — a future Michigan State standout who had some NFL and Arena League time — was a third-team pick for the Barons.
1999: A repeat pick for Smoker, who was the first-team QB in the big-school category. He was joined by Wilson OL Andy Cinamella on the second team and his Bulldogs’ teammate, RB Pete Gilmore, on the third team. I’ve covered hundreds and hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of L-L League players since 1993, and Smoker is on my very short list of the most talented players I ever chronicled. One L-L League player earned small-school first-team honors in 1999, and that was Columbia TE Ryan Strickler.
2000: Grand slam for the L-L League with seven big-school selections and a small-school pick. In the big-school category, three players earned first-team honors: Reading RB Lamar Stewart, Manheim Central LB Joe Kreider and Wilson DL Andy Roland. Second-team nods went to Manheim Central O-line stud Jason Saks and Garden Spot multi-sport standout Curtis Waltman, who was named as a specialist. He went on to play football for Villanova, and returned to coach Pequea Valley’s football squad for a couple of years. Waltman — like Smoker — is one of the most talented kids I’ve ever covered. He played a mean, mean game of basketball. Third-team honors were bestowed upon Ephrata OL Ralph Sheridan and Reading LB Zach Meier. In the small school category that year, Elco QB Zach Kulp, one of the leading passers in L-L League history, was a third-team pick as a specialist.
Told you … a lot of outstanding memory-lane moments.
2001: A monster year for the L-L League, including Kulp, who earned a repeat nod, this time as a second-team QB in the small school division. The big-school list? Buckle up. First-team honors: McCaskey WR Danny Melendez — a future Maryland Terrapin — and Manheim Central K Aaron Kopp. Second-team honors: Wilson WR Ian Firestone, McCaskey OL Joel Holler — a future Penn State Nittany Lion — Manheim Central OL Jake Johnson, McCaskey QB Perry Patterson — a future Syracuse signal-caller — and Cedar Crest QB Brandon Kirsch — a future Purdue Boilermaker — was named as a specialist. Kirsch is back coaching in the Falcons’ program. Manheim Central LB Brad Barnett and Manheim Township’s Justin Shull, who was named as a specialist, were also second-teamers. Third-teamers: Reading OL Sean Gaul and Red Knights’ RB Sam Bryant — a future Miami Hurricane — and Warwick OL Jed Prisby.
2002: A big year in the big-school category for Wilson, as the Bulldogs put OL Chris Sands and QB Chad Henne on the second team, and WR Andy Lehatto on the third team. Henne went on to star at Michigan, and he won a Super Bowl with the Kansas City Chiefs last season. He’s on the very short list of 7,000-yard passers in L-L League history. Reading LB James Bryant was a second-team pick, and there were a pair of first-teamers in 2002: Manheim Township OL Brian Kermanc and McCaskey’s Holler, who was a repeat pick.
And then the AP started naming teams by classifications …
2003: Six L-L League Class 4A picks here, including Henne as a first-team QB. Don’t think I’ve seen any L-L League QB throw a football harder than Henne. Kid could thread a needle. Meanwhile, Reading produced a pair of second-teamers: Bryant as a repeat pick at LB, and DB Kalise Cook. And McCaskey’s Jimmare Jackson was a third-team pick as a specialist. … In Class 3A, Manheim Central QB Jarryd Moyer and O-line anchor Mike Byrne were first-team picks, and Barons’ teammate Jeremiha Hunter was a third-team pick as a specialist. Those two helped Central win PIAA gold that season, with the Barons’ unforgettable victory over Pine-Richland in the Snow Bowl. Hunter went on to play LB for Iowa; Byrne played for Delaware. … In Class 2A, Lancaster Catholic TE Ryan Purvis — the first of the very talented crop of Purvis brothers to come through the Crusaders’ program — was a first-team selection. He played for Boston College and had a cup of coffee with the New York Football Giants.
2004: Two Class 4A first-team honorees here, including Wilson WR Shawn Smith and Manheim Township WR George Eager, who is currently Hempfield’s head coach, after a standout career at F&M. … In Class 3A, Hunter was a repeat pick for Manheim Central, this time as a first-team LB, and a Barons’ all-timer, WR Graham Zug, was a second-team specialist. Zug went on to play for Penn State, and he’s been coaching in Palmyra's program. Amish Lightning! … Lancaster Catholic WR T.J. Hammond was a second-team Class 2A pick.
2005: Six overall AP picks here, including some familiar names. In Class 4A, Conestoga Valley WR Ty Bynum was a first-team pick, and Hempfield OL Doug Macik and Manheim Township QB Pat Bostick were second-teamers. Bostick, one of those select few 7,000-yard passers for the Blue Streaks, went on to play for Pitt. … Meanwhile, future Penn State wrecking ball Jared Odrick at Lebanon picked up Class 3A first-team honors at D-line. He was an absolute animal for the Cedars. Zug, meanwhile, was a repeat pick for Manheim Central, this time as a first-team wideout. … And in Class 2A, Lancaster Catholic TE Matt Balasavage was a first-team pick, and Crusaders’ teammate Tom Nardo was a second-team selection at D-line. This was round about the time when Lancaster Catholic started picking up some major momentum.
2006: Class 4A had two first-teamers: A repeat selection for CV’s Bynum at wideout — in the Bucks’ pantheon of standout receivers, I always forget how really, really good Bynum was — and Manheim Township K David Soldner. Second-team nods went to Wilson WR Josh Smith and Bostick, who was a repeat honoree at QB. … Two Class 3A picks, both third-teamers: Ephrata P Greg Edleman — the first L-L League punter to grace an All-State list — and Manheim Central’s Nate Groff, who was tabbed as a specialist. He was an RB/LB type for the Barons. … Lancaster Catholic had three Class 2A winners: Balasavage was a repeat selection as a first-team TE — he was stepping into Purvis’ spikes and did just fine — and third-team nods went to Nardo, a repeat winner at DL, and DB Nick Downey, who was a superb dual-threat kid for the Crusaders.
2007: Soldner, Township’s talented specialist, earned a repeat performance, this time as a first-team kicker. He was really good. Also in 4A, Wilson LB Colton Weaver — talk about a ball-hawker — and Manheim Township DL Robert De La Rosa were second-team picks. … Lampeter-Strasburg won the D3-3A crown that fall, and the Pioneers had a pair of picks: RB Justin Taylor — a game-breaker, game-changer kid who was awesome in special teams, too — was a second-team pick, and DL Anthony Cintron was a first-teamer. … In Class 2A, L-L League all-time leading passer Kyle Smith made the first of his three appearances on the AP list, this time in his sophomore season as a second-teamer. Smith is one of two L-L League players to make All-State three times. We’ll get to the other one here shortly.
2008: Four Class 4A picks for Wilson: DL Rodney Hill was a first-teamer, and WR Alex Fegley and D-backs Pat Zerbe and Colton Weaver were second-team selections. Funny, I don’t remember Zerbe and Weaver being D-backs? Safeties, maybe? Weaver was an LB pick in 2007. Fegley, Firestone, Lehatto, Josh Smith and Shawn Smith were all All-State WR picks out of West Lawn during this era. Not too shabby. Manheim Township LB Nick Sizemore also picked up second-team honors. … In Class 3A, Lebanon QB James Capello and Cedars’ teammate Jordan Clentimack, at wideout, were first-team picks, along with Manheim Central thumper D-end Dakota Royer, who played for Penn State. Cocalico speed-demon Kyle Fisher was a second-team DB pick; he also excelled at RB for the Eagles. … In Class 2A, Smith was a repeat honoree as a first-team QB, and he was joined there by Crusaders’ WR Travis Jankowski, who also answers to Freddy. Jankowski is a big-league outfielder for the Cincinnati Reds these days. Second-team 2A picks included Pequea Valley WR Sean Persch and Catholic DL Nick Schmalhofer. Persch had a monster season; believe he had 80-plus catches for the pass-happy Braves that fall.
This is when the AP stopped putting out the lists, and the PA Football Writers took over. Teams were listed by classification, with first-team and second-team selections ...
2009: Jackpot year for the L-L League with 12 picks, but just one in Class 4A: Wilson TE Tyler Beck — who played for Bowling Green, if memory serves me correctly — was a first-teamer. … Class 3A had seven selections: Manheim Central K Taylor Groff; Manheim Central’s Casey Ebersole was listed as an athlete; Manheim Central wrecking-ball RB Joe Gruber; Elco LB Arron Achey and a repeat for Barons’ blitz-machine Royer, who were all first-teamers. Achey also played QB for Elco, and he was a dual-threat wizard who ended up playing for Maine. Second-team nods went to CV RB Kevin Kelley, who had a 2,000-yard rushing season that fall, plus Manheim Central OL Rob LaPorte and Lebanon OL Arthur Doakes. … Smith headlined the Class 2A picks with another first-team selection, capping off his brilliant 8,700-plus passing-yard career for the Crusaders, who won PIAA gold that fall with a win over Greensburg Central Catholic in the snow in Hershey. Catholic’s Tyler Purvis was a first-team pick at athlete, and Crusaders’ standout Jordan Stewart was a second-team honoree as an athlete. Smith was named Class 2A Player of the Year, and Catholic skipper Bruce Harbach was tabbed Class 2A Coach of the Year. The only other L-L League field general to nab Coach of the Year honors? Manheim Central’s Mike Williams, in 2003.
2010: Seven L-L League honorees here: Manheim Township OL Alex Vigilante (4A second team); Wilson DB Conner Mathias (4A first team); Manheim Township P Quint Miller (4A first team); Wilson LB Cody Simcox (4A second team); Cocalico hammer RB Austin Hartman (3A second team); Lancaster Catholic OL Adam DiPietro (2A second team); and Columbia WR Mike Burke (1A first team). Hartman is one of the leading rushers in L-L League history. Burke — who also answered to “Four” — played for Villanova.
2011: Six L-L League honorees here: McCaskey WR Diante Cherry (4A first team); Lancaster Catholic RB Roman Clay (2A first team); DiPietro with a repeat performance for the Crusaders; Burke with a repeat performance for Columbia, which won district gold that fall; Lancaster Catholic’s Charles Sweigart (2A second-team specialist); and Columbia LB Bryan Flory (2A second team). Cherry played for Delaware. Clay is the league’s all-time leading rusher, and he helped Catholic win PIAA gold that fall, for the Crusaders’ second state-title in three years.
2012: A banner year for Wilson, which produced — get this — a trio of first-team Class 4A picks: DL Junior Joseph, LB Dominic Moyer and athlete-pick Jimmy Brooks all made that list. In 3A, Clay earned a repeat honor at RB, along with Manheim Central TE Taylor Geib. Yes, Catholic bumped up to 3A that fall.
2013: Just three L-L League honorees that season, including Lebanon QB Mark Pyles (4A first team), Manheim Central RB Marc Royer (3A first team) and Barons’ teammate Chad Zunich, a first-team O-line pick.
2014: A slow year for the L-L League, with just two selections total: Zunich was a repeat pick at OL, and Wilson LB Ike Schannauer made the 4A list.
2015: Four Class 4A picks and a pair of 3A picks for the L-L League: Manheim Township QB Erik Benjamin, Hempfield RB Will Blair, Wilson DB Jon Fox and a repeat performance by Schannauer at LB in 4A, and a pair of players who were selected as specialists in 3A: L-S QB Collin Shank — aka “Bear” — who is the third-ranked passer in league history, and Manheim Central specialist Derek Adams, who currently punts for Northwestern in the B1G.
2016: Nine nods for L-L League players, as the list now bumped up to six classes. In 6A, Wilson RB Iggy Reynoso picked up a nod. The large 5A contingent included Manheim Central QB Kody Kegarise, Manheim Central WR Jake Novak, Manheim Central OL Adam Kline, Manheim Central DL Gunnar Royer, Manheim Central LB Nick Brown and E-town DB Cade Robinson. That’s a lot of Barons; Royer is now long-snapping at Baylor. … In Class 3A, two Lancaster Catholic standouts were honored: D-lineman Peyton Snopek and DB Bryan Downey.
2017: Wilson's Reynoso picked up a repeat spot in Class 6A at RB, and he was joined by Manheim Township QB Luke Emge, who went on to QB the Big 33 team. Hempfield P Evan Pritchard also earned Class 6A honors as a specialist. … In 5A, Manheim Central QB Evan Simon made the first of his three All-State appearances, and he was joined by Novak, who was a repeat winner at WR, plus Manheim Central OL Tyler Dougherty and CV WR Jose Barbon, a Big 33 invitee who plays for Temple. … The 4A list included Lampeter-Strasburg specialist Peyton Denlinger and Pioneers’ D-line blitzer Damian Rosa.
2018: Multiple Class 6A and 5A players were honored here. In Class 6A: Wilson RB Elijah Morales, Bulldogs’ DB Isaiah Gilmore and Manheim Township K Jack Rodenberger. And in 5A: Simon was back after his wildly successful junior season, plus Manheim Central RB Tyler Flick, Warwick WR Trey Glass, Warwick TE Hayden Rucci, Cocalico O-line stud Brock Gingrich, Manheim Central LB Landan Moyer, Manheim Central DB Will Rivers and Cocalico’s Noah Palm was listed as an athlete. Manheim Central went to the state finale that fall, falling to Penn Hills in a topsy-turvey title game in Hershey. Rucci plays TE for Wisconsin, and he’ll be joined by his younger brother next season. Wait for it …
2019: A big season for L-L League performers, with 13 picks. In Class 6A: Wilson’s Avanti Lockhart was named as an athlete; he was an RB/LB type for the Bulldogs. … In Class 5A: Simon tied Smith when he secured his third All-State selection. He was joined by Warwick QB Joey McCracken, Manheim Central WR Colby Wagner, Warwick WR Conor Adams, Warwick O-line hammer Nolan Rucci, Warwick DB Caleb Schmitz, and repeat nods at O-line for Gingrich and for Palm, once again as an athlete pick, and he was tabbed Class 5A Player of the Year — joining Lancaster Catholic’s Smith as the only L-L League standouts to earn AP and/or PA Football Writers Player of the Year honors. … In Class 4A: Elco’s Braden Bohannon picked up an athlete nod, as did L-S’s Christian Garver, who helped the Pioneers win D3-4A gold. Bohannon played QB/DB and Garver played LB for their respective teams. … In Class 3A: Lancaster Catholic O-line people-mover Trey Wells and Annville-Cleona K Mac Plummer were honored. Plummer booted an L-L League-record 54-yard field goal in 2019.
2020: A compete and total jackpot for the L-L League, which earned — wait for it — 25 All-State nods over four classifications. It was a truncated season because of coronavirus protocols, yes. But the L-L League kids were rewarded handsomely in the league’s largest All-State haul to date. In Class 6A: Manheim Township QB Evan Clark, Blue Streaks’ WR Anthony Ivey, Hempfield’s Tanner Hess (athlete), Black Knights’ K Spencer Biscoe and Wilson DB Troy Corson were honored. … In Class 5A: Multiple Warwick repeat winners here, including Rucci, McCracken and Schmitz, plus Warwick RB Colton Miller, Warwick TE Thatcher Miller, Manheim Central WR Owen Sensenig, Lebanon WR Alex Rufe, and a trio of E-town standouts: DL Jett Kelly, LB Bobby Walters and long-snapper Billy McNitt — the first L-L League long-snapper to be recognized. … In Class 4A: A repeat nod for Bohannon as an athlete, plus Elco LB Luke Williams, L-S QB Sean McTaggart, L-S TE Beau Heyser, Cocalico OL Ryan Brubaker — Jeff’s son — L-S OL Zac Shelley, L-S DL Parker Owens, L-S LB Nick Del Grande and Garden Spot DB Jesse Martin. … And in Class 3A: Lancaster Catholic DL Devin Atkinson picked up a nod.
Including repeat and three-peat selections, here's the L-L League breakdown: Manheim Central (47 AP/PFW All-State picks), Wilson (40), Lancaster Catholic (24), Manheim Township (17), Conestoga Valley (16), Cocalico (12), Warwick (12), Lampeter-Strasburg (11), Reading (10), Lebanon (8), Elizabethtown (7), Elco (6), Hempfield (6), McCaskey (6), Columbia (4), Cedar Crest (3), Garden Spot (3), Ephrata (2), Lebanon Catholic (2), Annville-Cleona (1), Donegal (1), Governor Mifflin (1), Pequea Valley (1), Solanco (1).